Concussions and Other Traumatic Brain Injuries: Symptoms and Signs

A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is, by definition, any injury that adversely affects how the brain works. TBIs can range from mild—although mild is a relative term, as even the mildest of concussions can be debilitating—to catastrophic, causing long-term disability and death.

According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the most common causes of TBIs are:

To put a finer point on it, slip and fall incidents account for almost half of all TBIs requiring hospitalization, and it happens more often than you probably think. In 2020, there were more than 214,000 TBI-related hospitalizations in the U.S. And in 2021, about 190 Americans died from TBI-related injuries each and every day.

If you or a loved one are involved in a motor vehicle accident, slip and fall, or other incident, it’s helpful to know the symptoms and signs of a TBI.

Types of Traumatic Brain Injuries

There are many types of head injuries that can result in TBIs, but three types are most prevalent as the result of accidents:


A concussion is caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, and is by far the most common type of TBI. It can also be caused by a blow to the body that causes the victim’s head to move back and forth rapidly, causing the brain to bounce around within the skull. While a concussion is considered the most mild of TBIs, they can be extremely serious, and should not be taken lightly. The effects of concussions can last for weeks and even months; repeated concussions (such as those often experienced by athletes) can have profound life-long adverse effects.

Keep in mind that while concussion symptoms usually appear quickly, that’s not always the case. They can manifest hours, even days after the incident. Here are some symptoms and signs to watch for. The victim:

  • Experiences nausea, vomiting, extreme headache, a feeling of pressure in the head
  • Has dizziness, problems with balance, or double vision
  • Experiences sensitivity to light or noise
  • Can’t remember what happened before or after the incident
  • Seems stunned, dazed, or confused
  • Is experiencing general confusion, has trouble answering questions, etc.
  • Has lost consciousness, even if only for a moment
  • Experiences changes in mood, behavior, or personality

Should the victim suffer any of these symptoms, seek medical help immediately. A medical profession will institute a concussion protocol, which is a set of guidelines used to assess whether a concussion is present

Extra-Axial Hematoma

Intracranial bleeding, either in the brain or outside the brain caused by extreme head trauma. This is one of the most severe of all TBIs, as potential consequences are extreme increases in intracranial pressure, secondary brain injuries, and death.

Symptoms can be similar to those of concussions, including ongoing headaches, confusion, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, slurred speech, changes in vision, etc. A healthcare professional should be seen immediately with any head injury and that’s especially the case with a possible extra-axial hematoma.


Put simply, a contusion is bruising of the brain caused by an impact style incident. This can happen at the site of an impact injury, or on the opposite side of the brain from the impact site. Contusions are usually closed-head injuries, but an open-head injury can also cause a contusion. Contusions are prevalent in motor vehicle accidents, particularly with high speed collisions.

As with other TBIs, contusions are serious, potentially life threatening. Here are some signs to watch for:

  • Seizures and/or fainting.
  • Loss of motor function.
  • Confusion, inability to concentrate.
  • Emotional distress.
  • Long-lasting, brutal headaches.
  • Dizziness, nausea, vomiting.
  • Extreme sensitivity to light and noise.

Hire the Right Attorney for the Job

If a traumatic brain injury is caused because of the fault or negligence of another, hiring the right attorney for the job is of paramount importance. Maximize your opportunity for a successful outcome by hiring an attorney with the experience, staff, and resources to guide you every step of the way and recover the largest settlement possible.

If you or a loved one are the victim of an incident that results in a TBI, contact the attorneys at LaSalvia Law. We will fight to win you the compensation you deserve.

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You can expect to hear from Christine 1-2 days after submitting your inquiry.

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Pay nothing up front. No fee until your case is settled or tried to a jury.